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All cancers in Australia

The following material has been sourced from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Cancer is a diverse group of several hundred diseases in which some of the body’s cells become abnormal and begin to multiply out of control. The abnormal cells can invade and damage the tissue around them, and spread to other parts of the body, causing further damage and eventually death.

All cancers combined incorporates ICD-10 cancer codes C00–C97 (Malignant neoplasms of specific sites), D45 (Polycythaemia), D46 (Myelodysplastic syndromes), and D47.1, D47.3, D47.4 and D47.5 (Myeloproliferative diseases); but excludes basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. BCC and SCC, the most common skin cancers, are not notifiable diseases in Australia and are not reported in the Australian Cancer Database.


Estimated* number of new cancer cases diagnosed in 2016

130,466 = Male icon PNG 72,048 males + Female icon PNG 58,418 females


Estimated number of deaths from cancer in 2016

46,880 = Male icon PNG 26,566 males + Female icon PNG 20,314 females


67 in 100 PNG

Chance of surviving at least 5 years (2008–2012) 

67%


Lots of people PNG

People living with cancer at the end of 2010 (diagnosed in the 5 year period 2006 to 2010)

384,593


How common is cancer in Australia?

In 2012, there were 122,093 new cases of cancer diagnosed in Australia (68,288 males and 53,805 females).a In 2016, it is estimated that 130,466 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed in Australia (72,048 males and 58,418 females).b

In 2012, the age-standardised incidence rate was 485 cases per 100,000 persons (572 for males and 412 for females).d In 2016, it is estimated that the age-standardised incidence rate will be 467 cases per 100,000 persons (539 for males and 407 for females).

In 2016, it is estimated that the risk of an individual being diagnosed with cancer by their 85th birthday will be 1 in 2 (1 in 2 males and 1 in 3 females).

In 2016, it is expected the incidence of cancer will generally increase with age (see figure below).

Figure 1: Estimated age-specific incidence rates for all cancers combined, 2016

bar graph showing the estimated number of new cases of all cancers combined diagnosed in 2016, by five year age groups (0-4 to 85+). The age-specific incidence rate for each five year age group is expressed as the estimated number of new cases of all cancers combined diagnosed per 100,000 persons, which is presented on the y-axis. The incidence rate of all cancers combined is expected to generally increase across the age groups, with persons aged 0-4 years having an estimated diagnosis rate of 21.2 cases per 100,000, while persons aged 85+ have an estimated diagnosis rate of 2,714.6 cases per 100,000.

Source: AIHW analysis of the Australian Cancer Database, (see source table 1).

Estimated most common cancers diagnosed in 2016
Cancer type New cases 2016 % of all new cancers 2016
Prostate (among males) 18,138 25.2
Bowel 17,520 13.4
Breast 16,084 12.3
Breast (among females) 15,934 27.3
Melanoma 13,283 10.2
Lung 12,203 9.4

Deaths from cancer

In 2013, there were 44,108 deaths from cancer in Australia (24,972 males and 19,136 females). In 2016, it is estimated that this will increase to 46,880 deaths (26,566 males and 20,314 females).c

In 2013, the age-standardised mortality rate was 166 deaths per 100,000 persons (209 for males and 133 for females).d In 2016, it is estimated that the age-standardised mortality rate will be 162 deaths per 100,000 persons (203 for males and 130 for females).

In 2016, it is estimated that the risk of an individual dying from cancer by their 85th birthday will be 1 in 5 (1 in 4 for males and 1 in 6 for females).

Incidence

The number of new cases of cancer diagnosed increased from 47,445 in 1982 to 122,093 in 2012.

Over the same period, the age-standardised incidence rate increased from 383 cases per 100,000 persons in 1982 to 485 cases per 100,000 persons in 2012.

Mortality

The number of deaths from cancer increased from 17,032 in 1968 to 44,108 in 2013.

Over the same period, the age-standardised mortality rate decreased from 199 deaths per 100,000 persons in 1968 to 166 deaths per 100,000 persons in 2013.

Figure 2: Age-standardised incidence rates for all cancers combined 1982–2012 and age-standardised mortality rates for all cancers combined 1968–2013

line graph with two lines showing actual incidence and mortality rates for all cancers combined. One line of the graph shows actual incidence rates for all cancers combined from 1982 to 2012. The other line shows actual mortality rates for all cancers combined from 1968 to 2013. The age-standardised incidence and mortality rate for each year is expressed as the number of new cases or number of deaths per 100,000 persons and presented on the y-axis. The incidence rate for all cancers combined increased from 383.2 cases per 100,000 persons in 1982 to 485.3 cases per 100,000 persons in 2012. The mortality rate for all cancers combined decreased from 199.1 deaths per 100,000 persons in 1968 to 166.1 deaths per 100,000 persons in 2013.

Note: Incidence rates available for 1982–2012, and mortality rates available for 1968–2013.

Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare1

Survival from cancer

In 2008–2012 in Australia, individuals diagnosed with cancer had a 67% chance of surviving for 5 years compared to their counterparts in the general Australian population.

Between 1983–1987 and 2008–2012, 5-year relative survival from cancer improved from 47% to 67%.

Figure 3: 5-year relative survival from all cancers combined, 1983–1987 to 2008–2012

Bar chart showing five year relative survival from all cancers combined in five year periods, starting from 1983-1987 and ending in 2008-2012. The percentage of survival is presented on the y-axis. In 1983-1987, 5 year relative survival was 47.3%. This increased to 67.4% in 2008-2012.

Source: AIHW analysis of the Australian Cancer Database, (see source table 2).

Prevalence of cancer

The prevalence for 1, 5 and 29 years given below are the number of people living with cancer at the end of 2010 who had been diagnosed in the preceding 1, 5 and 29 years respectively.

One year prevalence

At the end of 2010, there were 100,293 people living who had been diagnosed with cancer that year.

Five year prevalence

At the end of 2010, there were 384,593 people living who had been diagnosed with cancer in the previous 5 years (from 2006 to 2010).

29 year prevalence

At the end of 2010, there were 905,987 people living who had been diagnosed with cancer in the previous 29 years (from 1982 to 2010).


Source tables

Source table 1: Estimated age-specific incidence rates for all cancers combined, 2016
Age group (years) Number of new cases
per 100,000 persons
0–4 21.2
5–9 10.3
10–14 12.0
15–19 21.5
20–24 33.5
25–29 64.3
30–34 91.3
35–39 149.1
40–44 231.7
45–49 372.1
50–54 563.0
55–59 829.1
60–64 1,195.2
65–69 1,720.1
70–74 1,936.1
75–79 2,199.1
80–84 2,496.1
85+ 2,714.6
Source table 2: 5-year relative survival from cancer, 1983–1987 to 2008–2012
Year 5-year relative survival (%)
1983–1987 47.3
1988–1992 51.2
1993–1997 56.6
1998–2002 60.2
2003–2007 63.4
2008–2012 67.4

Data notes

International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems Version 10 (ICD-10)

Cancer, like other health conditions, is classified by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems Version 10 (ICD-10). This is a statistical classification, published by the World Health Organization, in which each morbid condition is assigned a unique code according to established criteria.

Estimations

Future estimates for incidence and mortality are a mathematical extrapolation of past trends. They assume that the most recent trends will continue into the future, and are intended to illustrate future changes that might reasonably be expected to occur if the stated assumptions continue to apply over the estimated period. Actual future cancer incidence and mortality rates may vary from these estimations for a variety of factors. New screening programs may increase the detection of new cancer cases; new vaccination programs may decrease the risk of developing cancer; and improvements in treatment options may decrease mortality rates.

Due to the rounding of these estimates, male and female incidence and mortality may not sum to person incidence and mortality.

Incidence

Cancer incidence indicates the number of new cancers diagnosed during a specified time period (usually one year).

  1. The 2012 national incidence counts include estimates for NSW and the ACT because the actual data were not available.
  2. The 2016 estimates are based on 2002–11 incidence data. Due to rounding of these estimates, male and female incidence may not sum to person incidence.

Mortality

Cancer mortality refers to the number of deaths occurring during a specified time period (usually one year) for which the underlying cause of death is cancer.

  1. The 2016 estimates are based on 2002–13 mortality data.

Prevalence

Prevalence of cancer refers to the number of people alive with a prior diagnosis of cancer at a given time. It is distinct from incidence (see above). The longest period for which it is possible to calculate prevalence using the available national data (from 1982 to 2010) is currently 29 years. This span is used to estimate the 'total' prevalence of cancer at the end of 2010, noting that people diagnosed with cancer before 1982 are not included.

Age standardised rates

  1. Incidence and mortality rates expressed per 100,000 population are age-standardised to the Australian population as at 30 June 2001.

References

  1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2016. Australian Cancer Incidence and Mortality (ACIM) books: breast cancer. Canberra: AIHW. [Accessed January 2016].