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Thyroid cancer (C73)

The following material has been sourced from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Table 1: Incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer, by sex
  Incidence
Males
Incidence
Females
Incidence
Persons
Mortality
Males
Mortality
Females
Mortality
Persons
2013 incidence/2014 mortality  
Number 663 1,889 2,553 54 79 133
Crude rate 5.8 16.3 11.0 0.5 0.7 0.6
ASR 5.6 15.6 10.6 0.4 0.5 0.5
Risk to age 75 1 in 222 1 in 81 1 in 118 1 in 4,206 1 in 3,108 1 in 3,567
Risk to age 85 1 in 178 1 in 70 1 in 100 1 in 1,487 1 in 1,371 1 in 1,430
Mean age (years) 54.8 51.5 52.4 72.4 73.3 72.9
Median age (years) 55.0 51.0 52.0 74.5 76.0 75.0
Estimated number for 2017 and 2018  
2017 850 2,329 3,179 60 80 140
2018 894 2,436 3,330 62 82 144

Figure 1: Incidence and mortality ASRs of thyroid cancer, by sex, 1982–2018

This line chart presents the trends for age-standardised incidence and mortality rates of thyroid cancer, by sex, for the period 1982–2018. Two lines of the graph show actual incidence rates for males and females from 1982 to 2013; each line extends to show estimated incidence rates from 2014 to 2018. The other two lines show actual mortality rates for males and females from 1982 to 2014; each line extends to show estimated mortality rates from 2015 to 2018. Actual data are shown in solid lines and estimated data in dotted lines. The age standardised incidence and mortality rate is expressed per 100,000 and presented on the y-axis. Every fourth year from 1982–2018 (inclusive) is presented on the x axis. The incidence rate for males increased from 1.6 per 100,000 in 1982 to 5.6 per 100,000 in 2013. The incidence rate is estimated to be 6.8 per 100,000 in 2018. The incidence rate for females increased from 3.7 per 100,000 in 1982 to 16 per 100,000 in 2013. The incidence rate is estimated to be 19 per 100,000 in 2018. The mortality rate for males decreased from 0.5 per 100,000 in 1982 to 0.4 per 100,000 in 2014. The mortality rate is estimated to remain at 0.4 per 100,000 in 2018. The mortality rate for females decreased from 0.7 per 100,000 in 1982 to 0.5 per 100,000 in 2014. The mortality rate is estimated to remain at 0.5 per 100,000 in 2018.

Figure 2: Incidence (2013) and mortality (2014) rates of thyroid cancer, by age group and sex

This line graph presents actual incidence and mortality rates of thyroid cancer for males and females in 5-year age groups. Incidence rates are shown for 2013 and mortality rates for 2014. The age-specific incidence rate and mortality rate for each year is expressed as the number of new cases or number of deaths per 100,000 persons and presented on the y axis. The incidence rate for males was less than 0.1 per 100,000 for age groups 0–4 and 5–9; it generally increased with age, reaching a high of 12 per 100,000 for age group 75–79. The incidence rate then decreased to 6.5 per 100,000 for age group 85 and over.  The incidence rate for females increased from less than 0.1 per 100,000 for age group 0–4 to a high of 31 per 100,000 for age group 60–64. The incidence rate then decreased to 9.9 for age group 85 and over.  The mortality rate for males remained steady between less than 0.1 per 100,000 and 0.1 per 100,000 for age groups 0–4 to 50–54. The mortality rate then generally increased with age, reaching a high of 5.6 per 100,000 for age group 80–84, before decreasing to 4.3 for age group 85 and over.  The mortality rate for females remained steady between less than 0.1 per 100,000 and 0.1 per 100,000 for age groups 0–4 to 40–44. The mortality rate then generally increased with age, reaching a high of 6.5 per 100,000 for age group 85 and over.  
Table 2: Survival and prevalence of thyroid cancer, by sex
  Males Females Persons
Prevalence as at the end of 2012 (number)
1-year prevalence 625 1,830 2,455
5-year prevalence 2,668 7,961 10,629
31-year prevalence 6,483 21,902 28,385
Relative survival in 2009–2013 (%)
1-year relative survival at diagnosis 96.1 98.2 97.7
5-year relative survival at diagnosis 92.9 97.2 96.1
5-year conditional relative survival for those already survived 1 year after diagnosis 95.9 99.0 98.2
5-year conditional relative survival for those already survived 5 years after diagnosis 97.5 99.4 98.9
5-year conditional relative survival for those already survived 10 years after diagnosis 96.7 100.0 99.3
5-year conditional relative survival for those already survived 15 years after diagnosis 98.5 99.8 99.6

Figure 3: Five-year relative survival from thyroid cancer, by sex, Australia, 1984–1988 to 2009–2013

This line chart presents 5-year relative survival at diagnosis for thyroid cancer by males, females and persons over the period 1984–1988 to 2009–2013. The percentage of survival is presented on the y-axis. For males, 5-year relative survival went from 82% in 1984–1988 to 93% in 2009–2013. For females, 5-year relative survival went from 88% in 1984–1988 to 97% in 2009–2013. For persons, 5-year relative survival went from 86% in 1984–1988 to 96% in 2009–2013.

Notes

  1. Risk factors based on IARC (2014) (see Chapter 1).
  2. The 2013 incidence data include estimates for NSW. Mean and median age for 2013 incidence was calculated excluding NSW.
  3. Deaths registered in 2012 and earlier are based on the final version of cause of death data; deaths registered in 2013 and 2014 are based on revised and preliminary versions, respectively, and are subject to further revision by the ABS.
  4. The rates were age standardised to the 2001 Australian Standard Population and are expressed per 100,000 population.
  5. The 2014–2018 estimates for incidence are based on 2004–2013 incidence data. The 2015–2018 estimates for mortality are based on joinpoint analysis of 1968–2013 mortality data for males and 1996–2013 mortality data for females (see Appendix D).
  6. Relative survival was calculated with the period method, using the period 2009–2013 (Brenner & Gefeller 1996). Note that this period does not contain incidence data for 2013 for NSW (see Appendix C).

Sources: AIHW ACD 2013; AIHW NMD.