Gynaecological cancer in Australia

The following material has been sourced from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Gynaecological cancer incorporates ICD-10 cancer codes C51 (Malignant neoplasm of vulva), C52 (Malignant neoplasm of vagina), C53 (Malignant neoplasm of cervix), C54 (Malignant neoplasm of corpus uteri), C55 (Malignant neoplasm of uterus, part unspecified), C56 (Malignant neoplasm of ovary), C57 (Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified female genital organs) and C58 (Malignant neoplasm of placenta).


Estimated* number of new cases of gynaecological cancer diagnosed in 2016

 Female icon PNG5,683 females


gynaecological cancer % of all new cancer cases PNG

Estimated % of all new female cancer cases diagnosed in 2016

9.7% 


Estimated number of deaths from gynaecological cancer in 2016

Female icon PNG1,743 females


gynaecological cancer % of all deaths PNG

Estimated % of all female deaths from cancer in 2016

8.6%


67 in 100 PNG

Chance of surviving at least 5 years (2008–2012)

68%


Lots of people PNG

Females living with gynaecological cancer at the end of 2010 (diagnosed in the 5 year period 2006 to 2010)

17,146


How common is gynaecological cancer in Australia?

In 2012, there were 5,199 new cases of gynaecological cancer diagnosed in Australia.a In 2016, it is estimated that 5,683 new cases of gynaecological cancer will be diagnosed in Australia.b

In 2012, the age-standardised incidence rate was 40 cases per 100,000 females.d In 2016, it is estimated that the age-standardised incidence rate will be 40 cases per 100,000 females.

Gynaecological cancer was the 3rd most commonly diagnosed cancer among females in Australia in 2012. It is estimated that it will remain the 3rd most commonly diagnosed cancer among females in 2016.

In 2016, it is estimated that the risk of a female being diagnosed with gynaecological cancer by her 85th birthday will be 1 in 22.

In 2016, it is expected that the incidence rate of gynaecological cancer is expected to generally increase with age (see figure below).

Figure 1: Estimated age-specific incidence rates for gynaecological cancer, 2016

bar graph showing the estimated number of new cases of gynaecological cancer diagnosed in 2016, by five year age groups (0-4 to 85+). The age-specific incidence rate for each five year age group is expressed as the estimated number of new cases of gynaecological cancer diagnosed per 100,000 females, which is presented on the y-axis. The estimated incidence rate of gynaecological cancer generally increases across the age groups, with females aged 0-4 years being diagnosed at a rate of 0.1 cases per 100,000, while females aged 85+ had an estimated diagnosis rate of 143.7 cases per 100,000.

Source: AIHW analysis of the Australian Cancer Database, (see source table 1).

Deaths from gynaecological cancer

In 2013, there were 1,762 deaths from gynaecological cancer in Australia. In 2016, it is estimated that this will decrease to 1,743 deaths.c

In 2013, the age-standardised mortality rate was 13 deaths per 100,000 females.d In 2016, it is estimated that the age-standardised mortality rate will be 11 deaths per 100,000 females.

In 2013, gynaecological cancer accounted for the 4th highest number of deaths from cancer among females in Australia. It is estimated that it will remain the 4th most common cause of death from cancer among females in 2016.

In 2016, it is estimated that the risk of a female dying from gynaecological cancer by their 85th birthday will be 1 in 65.

Incidence

The number of new cases of gynaecological cancer diagnosed increased from 2,948 in 1982 to 5,199 in 2012.

Over the same period, the age-standardised incidence rate decreased from 44 cases per 100,000 females in 1982 to 40 cases per 100,000 females in 2012.

Mortality

The number of deaths from gynaecological cancer increased from 1,120 in 1968 to 1,762 in 2013.

Over the same period, the age-standardised mortality rate decreased from 23 deaths per 100,000 females in 1968 to 13 deaths per 100,000 females in 2013.

Figure 2: Age-standardised incidence rates for gynaecological cancer 1982–2012 and age-standardised mortality rates for gynaecological cancer 1968–2013

line graph with two lines showing actual incidence and mortality rates for gynaecological cancer. One line of the graph shows actual incidence rates for gynaecological cancer from 1982 to 2012. The other line shows actual mortality rates for gynaecological cancer from 1968 to 2013. The age-standardised incidence and mortality rate for each year is expressed as the number of new cases or number of deaths per 100,000 females and presented on the y-axis. The incidence rate for gynaecological cancer decreased from 43.6 cases per 100,000 females in 1982 to 40.2 cases per 100,000 females in 2012. The mortality rate for gynaecological cancer decreased from 23.0 deaths per 100,000 females in 1968 to 12.5 deaths per 100,000 females in 2013.

Note: Incidence rates available for 1982–2012, and mortality rates available for 1968–2013.

Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, (see source table 2).

Survival from gynaecological cancer

In 2008–2012 in Australia, females diagnosed with gynaecological cancer had a 68% chance of surviving for 5 years compared to their counterparts in the general Australian population.

Between 1983–1987 and 2008–2012, 5-year relative survival from gynaecological cancer improved from 60% to 68%.

Figure 3: 5-year relative survival from gynaecological cancer, 1983–1987 to 2008–2012

bar chart showing five year relative survival from gynaecological cancer in five year periods, starting from 1983-1987 and ending in 2008-2012. The percentage of survival is presented on the y-axis. In 1983-1987, 5 year relative survival was 59.8%. This increased to 68.5% in 2008-2012.

Source: AIHW analysis of the Australian Cancer Database, (see source table 3).

Prevalence of gynaecological cancer

The prevalence for 1, 5 and 29 years given below are the number of females living with gynaecological cancer at the end of 2010 who had been diagnosed in the preceding 1, 5 and 29 years respectively.

One year prevalence

At the end of 2010, there were 4,463 females living who had been diagnosed with gynaecological cancer that year.

Five year prevalence

At the end of 2010, there were 17,146 females living who had been diagnosed with gynaecological cancer in the previous 5 years (from 2006 to 2010).

29 year prevalence

At the end of 2010, there were 52,625 females living who had been diagnosed with gynaecological cancer in the previous 29 years (from 1982 to 2010).


Source tables

Source table 1: Estimated age-specific incidence rates for gynaecological cancer, 2016
Age group (years) Number of new cases
per 100,000 females
0–4 0.1
5–9 0.2
10–14 0.7
15–19 1.4
20–24 3.6
25–29 12.3
30–34 15.8
35–39 21.1
40–44 26.9
45–49 43.0
50–54 64.9
55–59 81.1
60–64 114.4
65–69 137.7
70–74 132.6
75–79 145.6
80–84 142.9
85+ 143.7
Source table 2: Age-standardised incidence rates for gynaecological cancer 1982–2012 and age-standardised mortality rates for gynaecological cancer 1968–2013
Year Rate of new diagnoses per 100,000 females Rate of deaths per 100,000 females
1968 - 23.0
1969 - 21.6
1970 - 22.2
1971 - 21.2
1972 - 21.9
1973 - 21.8
1974 - 20.4
1975 - 20.7
1976 - 20.1
1977 - 19.8
1978 - 19.5
1979 - 18.9
1980 - 18.4
1981 - 19.2
1982 43.6 18.5
1983 43.5 18.2
1984 44.3 18.6
1985 44.5 17.9
1986 43.9 17.9
1987 44.1 17.3
1988 42.6 16.2
1989 42.7 17.2
1990 43.0 16.8
1991 44.1 16.6
1992 43.3 15.2
1993 42.9 15.7
1994 44.9 16.0
1995 41.7 15.8
1996 40.5 15.6
1997 39.1 14.5
1998 39.4 14.1
1999 38.5 13.0
2000 38.8 13.7
2001 37.4 14.5
2002 38.2 13.9
2003 37.3 12.9
2004 38.9 13.2
2005 38.8 13.5
2006 38.5 12.6
2007 38.7 12.4
2008 38.9 12.8
2009 39.1 12.5
2010 40.4 12.5
2011 39.4 12.5
2012 40.2 12.7
2013 - 12.5
Source table 3: 5-year relative survival from gynaecological cancer, 1983–1987 to 2008–2012
Year 5-year relative survival (%)
1983–1987 59.8
1988–1992 63.1
1993–1997 64.4
1998–2002 65.4
2003–2007 66.3
2008–2012 68.5

Data notes

International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems Version 10 (ICD-10)

Cancer, like other health conditions, is classified by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems Version 10 (ICD-10). This is a statistical classification, published by the World Health Organization, in which each morbid condition is assigned a unique code according to established criteria.

Estimations

Future estimates for incidence and mortality are a mathematical extrapolation of past trends. They assume that the most recent trends will continue into the future, and are intended to illustrate future changes that might reasonably be expected to occur if the stated assumptions continue to apply over the estimated period. Actual future cancer incidence and mortality rates may vary from these estimations for a variety of factors. New screening programs may increase the detection of new cancer cases; new vaccination programs may decrease the risk of developing cancer; and improvements in treatment options may decrease mortality rates.

Due to the rounding of these estimates, male and female incidence and mortality may not sum to person incidence and mortality.

Incidence

Cancer incidence indicates the number of new cancers diagnosed during a specified time period (usually one year).

  1. The 2012 national incidence counts include estimates for NSW and the ACT because the actual data were not available.
  2. The 2016 estimates are based on 2002–11 incidence data. Due to rounding of these estimates, male and female incidence may not sum to person incidence.

Mortality

Cancer mortality refers to the number of deaths occurring during a specified time period (usually one year) for which the underlying cause of death is cancer.

  1. The 2016 estimates are based on 2002–13 mortality data.

Prevalence

Prevalence of cancer refers to the number of people alive with a prior diagnosis of cancer at a given time. It is distinct from incidence (see above). The longest period for which it is possible to calculate prevalence using the available national data (from 1982 to 2010) is currently 29 years. This span is used to estimate the 'total' prevalence of cancer at the end of 2010, noting that people diagnosed with cancer before 1982 are not included.

Age standardised rates

  1. Incidence and mortality rates expressed per 100,000 population are age-standardised to the Australian population as at 30 June 2001.